Statistics & The Basics

Statistics, how To, Why To?

Statistics and Information Gathering

Easy To Study Guides


Statistics The Basics (A Summary)
1.
a) Primary data –      Primary data is collected at source for specific purposes, this can include favourite dinner or sweet collected via a questionnaire, this method can be costly but is the most effective way of information collection.
b) Secondary -          Secondary data is supporting data for your purpose, this can include information that was not structured for the purposes of your needs but still holds some relevance, Typically cheap to conduct or find but no control over the collection of the data.
c) Continuous -        Continuous data is data which is by definition constantly changing this been be seen when measuring rainfall or child’s feet as they are continuously changing value’s
d) Discrete -               Discrete data is information that does not change, if you were sampling biscuits being made in a factory they would be Discrete data as it would always be making the same biscuits.
e) Ordinal Data -       Is data that is structured in an order, i.e. First, Second, Third and so on. This can be used to select ranges of people or specific data in order to facilitate a streamline flow of information.
f) Qualitative data – is descriptive information, i.e. eye colour, favourite toy. These values are not numerical in nature but can still be collected in a manner which will allow patterns of information to be found between information sources or subjects

Sampling The Basics
2.
a) Stratified sampling – With the homogeneous population being students a random sampling would be suitable, In a stratified sample, the probability of an individual being included varies according to known characteristics, such as gender, and the aim is to ensure that all sub-groups of the population that might be of relevance to the study are adequately represented
b) Systematic Sampling –   With the homogeneous population of the same item time after time on the production line only a sample would be required through the runs of the products to ensure the quality of the products through the creation processes
c) Convenience Sampling –          As the location in is a shopping centre the convenience sampling is perhaps the easiest method of sampling, because participants are selected in the most convenient way, and are often allowed to choose or volunteer to take part. Good results can be obtained, but the data set may be seriously biased because those who volunteer to take part may be different from those who choose not to.
d) Clustered Sampling - In a clustered sample, sub-groups of the population are used as the sampling unit, rather than individuals. The population is divided into sub-groups, known as clusters, and a selection of these are randomly selected to be included in the study. All members of the cluster are then included in the study, this is like the voting polls as we are seeing in relation to the independence referendum for Scotland.

Information (Statistics Gathering)
3.
a) www.statistics.gov.uk holds a lot of public information for analysis and this information could be found within the website.
b) www.companieshouse.gov.uk Companies House contains all the information on businesses throughout the UK, all company’s files and results have to be submitted to company’s house in order for the government to keep up to date on businesses across the UK.
c) www.ons.gov.uk Office for National statistics holds information on pricing index’s you can see historical data as well for analysis

Types of information Gathering
4.
a) Postal Questionnaire – I would select this method for the business as it has low cost implications and the information would not be required immediately to work from, given the ease of implementation and low cost this would be my preferred method
b) Direct Observation – This would allow absolute certainty for information collection guaranteeing quality, however there is a direct impact in assigning resources to conduct this but the accuracy of the information would be an absolute and great for the purposes required.
c) Respondants Schedule – This is where the respondents of the information gathering note their points and record the information in order to provide solid and accurate reading of information in typically the form of a dairy.
d) Interviews – This is the most effective way in order to get the information required from the candidates about the specifics of details sought by the interview, this is a primary source of information.
e) Stratified sampling – This is a method of sampling from a population, this is useful because populations vary and it can be beneficial to look at each one on an individual basis to get a complete analysis.

I hope this helps in your understanding and more to follow on Statistics soon... the joy's!